ANÁLISIS DE RIESGOS POR METALES Y PESTICIDAS EN EL AGUA POTABLE DE ESMERALDAS, ATACAMES Y RÍO VERDE, ECUADOR

Daniel Rubio, Manuel Correa, Eleazar Salinas, Romel Mera, Leonardo Mera

Resumen


La contaminación del agua por metales y pesticidas es uno de los focos de estudio principales en los últimos años en el ámbito ambiental. Tanto metales como pesticidas representan una preocupación creciente en todo el mundo debido a su toxicidad crónica, persistencia y bioacumulación en organismos. Algunos estudios han demostrado que la exposición a pesticidas organoclorados y metales como el arsénico (As), plomo (Pb), mercurio (Hg), cadmio (Cd), níquel (Ni) y cromo (Cr) pueden tener efectos severos sobre la salud humana. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la concentración de metales y pesticidas en diversos puntos del sistema de agua potable que abastece a los núcleos urbanos de Esmeraldas, Atacames y Río Verde y evaluar los posibles riesgos derivados de la presencia de estos contaminantes. El área de estudio comprende tres cantones, seleccionando un total de 28 puntos de muestreo a lo largo de todo el sistema de distribución de agua potable. Se analizaron un total de 15 metales y 12 pesticidas en las muestras de agua. Los valores de los índices calculados (R y HQ) para los metales y pesticidas analizados mostraron riesgos aceptables para la población por la ingesta de agua. Ninguno de los metales y pesticidas analizados contemplados en la normativa INEN 1108:2014, quinta revisión, superaron los valores de concentración límite establecidos. Es recomendable crear un plan de vigilancia sobre el agua potable en la región que se prolongue en el tiempo para garantizar la calidad del agua.
Palabras clave: agua potable; metales; pesticidas; riesgo salud humana


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Referencias


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